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Nov 7, 2011

Marie Curie: Chemist and Physicist

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Marie Skłodowska: Radioactivity, Polonium, Radium
I write this article to commemorate 144th  Marie Curie birth day. Marie Skłodowska Curie (7 November 1867 - 4 July 1934) was a Polish-French physicist-chemist well-known for her pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the primary person honored with two Nobel Prizes-in physics and chemistry. She was the primary feminine professor at the College of Paris. She was the primary woman to be entombed on her own deserves (in 1995) in the Paris Panthéon.[citation needed]

She was born Maria Salomea Skłodowska in Warsaw, in Russian Poland, and lived there to the age of 24. In 1891 she followed her older sister Bronisława to study in Paris, where she earned her larger degrees and performed her subsequent scientific work. She shared her Nobel Prize in Physics (1903) with her husband Pierre Curie (and with Henri Becquerel). Her daughter Irène Joliot-Curie and son-in-regulation, Frédéric Joliot-Curie, would equally share a Nobel Prize. She was the sole winner of the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Curie was the first lady to win a Nobel Prize, and is the only lady to win in two fields, and the one individual to win in a quantity of sciences.

Her achievements embody a concept of radioactivity (a time period that she coined[2]), techniques for isolating radioactive isotopes, and the invention of two elements, polonium and radium. Underneath her route, the world's first research had been conducted into the remedy of neoplasms, using radioactive isotopes. She founded the Curie Institutes: the Curie Institute (Paris) and the Curie Institute (Warsaw).
Whereas an actively loyal French citizen, Skłodowska-Curie (as she styled herself) never lost her sense of Polish identity. She taught her daughters the Polish language and took them on visits to Poland. She named the primary chemical element that she found "polonium" (1898) for her native country. Throughout World Warfare I she turned a member of the Committee for a Free Poland (Komitet Wolnej Polski). In 1932 she based a Radium Institute (now the Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute of Oncology) in her house city, Warsaw, headed by her doctor-sister Bronisława.

Maria Skłodowska was born in Warsaw, Poland, on 7 November 1867, the fifth and youngest youngster of effectively-recognized teachers Bronisława and Władysław Skłodowski. Maria's older siblings were Zofia (born 1862), Józef (1863), Bronisława (1865) and Helena (1866).
Maria's paternal grandfather Józef Skłodowski had been a revered teacher in Lublin, the place he taught the young Bolesław Prus.
Her father Władysław Skłodowski taught mathematics and physics, subjects that Maria was to pursue, and was additionally director of two Warsaw gymnasia for boys, along with lodging boys in the family home. Maria's mom Bronisława operated a prestigious Warsaw boarding faculty for ladies; she suffered from tuberculosis and died when Maria was twelve.

Maria's father was an atheist; her mother-a devout Catholic.
Two years earlier Maria's oldest sibling, Zofia, had died of typhus. The deaths of her mother and sister, in accordance with Robert William Reid, induced Maria to give up Catholicism and grow to be agnostic.
When she was ten years outdated, Maria started attending the boarding school that her mom had operated while she was effectively; next Maria attended a gymnasium for ladies, from which she graduated on 12 June 1883. She spent the next year within the countryside with family of her father's, and the following along with her father in Warsaw, the place she did some tutoring.

On each the paternal and maternal sides, the family had misplaced their property and fortunes through patriotic involvements in Polish national uprisings. This condemned each subsequent technology, including that of Maria, her elder sisters and her brother, to a tough struggle to get forward in life.


Aged Żorawski

At a Warsaw lab, in 1890-91, Skłodowska did her first scientific work.
Maria made an settlement along with her sister, Bronisława, that she would give her financial assistance throughout Bronisława's medical studies in Paris, in exchange for comparable assistance two years later.
 In connection with this, Maria took a place as governess: first with a lawyer's household in Kraków; then for 2 years in Ciechanów with a landed family, the Żorawskis, who were relatives of her father. Whereas working for the latter family, she fell in love with their son, Kazimierz Żorawski, which was reciprocated by this future eminent mathematician. His mother and father, nonetheless, rejected the thought of his marrying the penniless relative, and Kazimierz was unable to oppose them. Maria misplaced her position as governess.
She found another with the Fuchs household in Sopot, on the Baltic Sea coast, the place she spent the subsequent yr, all of the while financially aiding her sister.

Firstly of 1890, Bronisława, a couple of months after she married Kazimierz Dłuski, invited Maria to affix them in Paris. Maria declined as a result of she couldn't afford the college tuition and was nonetheless relying on marrying Kazimierz Żorawski. She returned dwelling to her father in Warsaw, the place she remained until the autumn of 1891. She tutored, studied at the clandestine Floating College, and started her sensible scientific training in a laboratory on the Museum of Industry and Agriculture at Krakowskie Przedmieście sixty six, near Warsaw's Old Town. The laboratory was run by her cousin Józef Boguski, who had been assistant in Saint Petersburg to the great Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev.

In October 1891, at her sister's insistence and after receiving a letter from Żorawski, in which he definitively broke his relationship along with her, she decided to go to France after all.
Maria's loss of the connection with Żorawski was tragic for both. He quickly earned a doctorate and pursued an instructional profession as a mathematician, becoming a professor and rector of Kraków College and president of the Warsaw Society of Learning. Still, as an old man and a arithmetic professor at the Warsaw Polytechnic, he would sit contemplatively earlier than the statue of Maria Skłodowska which had been erected in 1935 before the Radium Institute that she had based in 1932.

In Paris, Maria briefly discovered shelter with her sister and brother-in-legislation earlier than renting a primitive garret[13] and continuing with her studies of physics, chemistry, and mathematics at the Sorbonne (the College of Paris).
Marie Curie: Chemist and Physicist
 

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